Staging, grading and prognosis for cancer of the uterus

Staging is a way to describe the size of the cancer and whether it has spread to other parts of the body. In some cases, imaging scans can show if the cancer has spread, but it is often not possible to be sure of the stage until after surgery. Grading describes how the cancer cells look under a microscope compared to normal cells and how aggressive they may be.

The stage and grade help your doctors work out the risk of the cancer returning and if you need further treatments. The table below shows how endometrial cancers are staged and graded. Uterine sarcomas are staged differently, so discuss this with your specialist.

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Staging and grading endometrial cancers

Staging endometrial cancers

stage I

The cancer is found only in the uterus.

early or localised cancer

stage II

The cancer has spread from the uterus to the cervix.

regionalised cancer

stage III

The cancer has spread beyond the uterus/cervix to the ovaries, fallopian tubes, vagina, or lymph nodes in the pelvis or abdomen.

regionalised cancer

stage IV

The cancer has spread further, to the bladder or rectum, throughout the abdomen, to other parts of the body such as the bones or lung, or to lymph nodes in the groin.

metastatic or advanced cancer

Grading endometrial cancers

grade 1 (low grade)

The cancer cells look slightly abnormal.

grade 2 (moderate grade)

The cancer cells look moderately abnormal.

grade 3 (high grade)

The cancer cells look more abnormal. These cancers tend to be more aggressive than lower-grade cancers.


Prognosis

Prognosis means the expected outcome of a disease. You may wish to discuss your prognosis and treatment options with your oncologists. However, it is not possible for anyone to predict the exact course of the disease in an individual person. Instead, your doctor can give you an idea about the general outlook for people with the same type and stage of cancer. You will also have tests to check how the cancer is responding to treatments.

Test results, the type of uterine cancer, the rate and depth of tumour growth, the likelihood of response to treatment, and factors such as your age, level of fitness, and medical history are all important in assessing your prognosis. As for most types of cancer, the outcomes tend to be better when uterine cancer is found and treated early.


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Instructions for downloading and reading EPUB files

Apple devices

The iBooks application must be installed on your Apple device before you can read the EPUB.
Different ways to download an EPUB file to your Apple device:

  • email EPUB files to yourself and transfer the attachment to iBooks.
  • copy EPUB files into DropBox (or a similar service) and use the DropBox app to send them to iBooks.
  • open EPUB files directly from Mobile Safari and open them in iBooks, where they are saved automatically by downloading the EPUB from the website.

Need more help? Visit: http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4059

Kobo

To download an EPUB file to your Kobo from a Windows computer:

  • download and save the EPUB directly onto your desktop.
  • connect your Kobo to your computer using the USB cable and tap “Connect” on your eReader.
  • select “Open folder to view files” to view the contents of your Kobo.
  • navigate to where you have stored your EPUB file in “Finder”, in documents or downloads, and drag and drop it into the Kobo window. You can now disconnect your Kobo to read the eBook.

To download an EPUB to your Kobo from a Mac:

  • download and save the EPUB directly onto your desktop.
  • connect your Kobo to your computer using the USB cable and tap “Connect” on your eReader.
  • open your “Finder” application.
  • select “Kobo eReader” from the listed devices to view the contents of your Kobo.
  • navigate to where you have stored your EPUB file in “Finder”, probably in documents or downloads, and drag and drop it into the Kobo window. You can now disconnect your Kobo to read the eBook.

Turn on your Kobo and your EPUB will be located in “eBooks”, while a PDF will be located in “Documents”.
Need more information? Visit: http://www.kobo.com/help/koboaura/response/?id=3784&type=3

Sony Reader

To download an EPUB file on your Sony Reader™:

  • ensure you have already installed the Reader™ Library for PC/Mac software
  • select the eBook you want from our website and click the link to download it.
  • connect the Reader™ to your computer.
  • open the Reader™ Library software and click “Library” in the left-hand pane and select the eBook to view it.

Need more help? Visit: https://au.readerstore.sony.com/apps_and_devices/

Amazon Kindle 2nd Generation devices

EPUB files can’t be read on the Amazon Kindle™. However, like most eReaders, Kindle™ 2nd Generation devices are able to display PDFs. We recommend that you download the PDF version of this booklet if you would like to read it on a Kindle™.
To transfer a PDF to your Kindle™ via USB cable from your computer or Mac:

  • download the PDF directly onto your computer.
  • connect the USB cable to your computer’s USB port, and the micro USB end of the cable to your Kindle™. Note: the Kindle™ won’t be available as a reading device while it is connected to your computer until it has been disconnected.
  • open the Kindle™ drive and several folders will appear inside. The “Documents” folder is where you will need to copy or drag the PDF to.
  • safely eject your Kindle™ from your computer and unplug the USB cable. Your content will appear on the Home Screen.

Kindle also provides a Kindle Personal Documents Service that allows users to send documents as an attachment directly to your eReader. For more information on this service, visit http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html/ref=help_search_1-1?ie=UTF8&nodeId=200767340&qid=1395967989&sr=1-1
For more information on accessing a PDF on your Kindle™, visit www.amazon.com/manageyourkindle, log in to your account and click on Personal Document Settings.
Need more help? Visit https://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=200375630

Android and PC

You can also download and open eBooks on Android devices and PCs with appropriate apps or software installed. Suitable eReader apps for Android include Google Play Books, FBReader and Moon+ Reader. Suitable software for PCs include Calibre and Adobe Digital Editions.


This information was last reviewed in March 2019
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