Do fruit and vegetables help prevent cancer?

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We all need to eat more fruit and vegetables.

Yes. There are two ways that fruit and vegetables are thought to help protect against cancer:

  • Directly through specific anti-carcinogenic (anti-cancer) agents
  • Indirectly by helping to mantain a healthy body weight

Fruit and vegetables are rich in fibre, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and phytochemicals, whose actions in the body help to protect against cancer. It is most likely that the combination of these nutrients found in whole foods help to reduce the risk of certain cancers rather than one anti-cancer component. Fruit and vegetables can also protect against cancer indirectly by helping to maintain a healthy body weight. Fruit and vegetables are rich in nutrients and low in kilojoules and are therefore great food choices for individuals trying to maintain or lose weight. People who eat lots of fruit and vegetables are less likely to be overweight or obese.

Excess fat around the stomach and obesity are well documented risk factors for some cancers of the bowel, breast, oesophagus, kidney and endometrium. Reducing weight by even 5-10% for overweight/obese individuals greatly decreases the chances of developing cancer.

Are all fruit and veg protective?
Yes! However, there is no one “super” fruit or vegetable that protects against cancer. They all contain varying amounts of fibre, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and phytochemicals, therefore it is important to eat a variety. Fruit choices should include citrus fruits, berries and coloured fruit particularly red, orange and yellow. Vegetable choices should include cruciferous varieties (e.g. broccoli, cabbage, Asian greens) allium varieties (e.g. onions, leeks), dark-green leafy vegetables and red, yellow, & orange varieties.

Eating a variety of both cooked and raw vegetables is encouraged as there are some cancer-fighting agents which are better absorbed from cooked fruit or vegetables. Good methods of cooking include steaming, stir frying, grilling and roasting. These use as little water as possible preventing nutrients and vitamins leaching out into the water.

What happens if I have already been diagnosed with cancer?
Eating fruit and vegetables is not a cure for cancer. For people already diagnosed with cancer, there is some evidence that a diet high in fruit and vegetables is of no significant benefit, but it is very unlikely to be harmful. This is still an active area of research, however we do know that eating well and being active can help you feel better, have more energy and help reduce the risk of cancer returning.

What about fruit juice?
The cancer protective nutrients are preserved in fresh fruit and vegetable juices and some may be more available in juices than whole fruits and vegetables. However fibre is removed in most vegetable and fruit juices and also in dietary supplements. As fibre is thought to be protective against colon cancer, fruit and vegetables are best consumed whole, rather than juiced or as nutrients, in a supplement form.

Instructions for downloading and reading EPUB files

Apple devices

The iBooks application must be installed on your Apple device before you can read the EPUB.
Different ways to download an EPUB file to your Apple device:

  • email EPUB files to yourself and transfer the attachment to iBooks.
  • copy EPUB files into DropBox (or a similar service) and use the DropBox app to send them to iBooks.
  • open EPUB files directly from Mobile Safari and open them in iBooks, where they are saved automatically by downloading the EPUB from the website.

Need more help? Visit: http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4059

Kobo

To download an EPUB file to your Kobo from a Windows computer:

  • download and save the EPUB directly onto your desktop.
  • connect your Kobo to your computer using the USB cable and tap “Connect” on your eReader.
  • select “Open folder to view files” to view the contents of your Kobo.
  • navigate to where you have stored your EPUB file in “Finder”, in documents or downloads, and drag and drop it into the Kobo window. You can now disconnect your Kobo to read the eBook.

To download an EPUB to your Kobo from a Mac:

  • download and save the EPUB directly onto your desktop.
  • connect your Kobo to your computer using the USB cable and tap “Connect” on your eReader.
  • open your “Finder” application.
  • select “Kobo eReader” from the listed devices to view the contents of your Kobo.
  • navigate to where you have stored your EPUB file in “Finder”, probably in documents or downloads, and drag and drop it into the Kobo window. You can now disconnect your Kobo to read the eBook.

Turn on your Kobo and your EPUB will be located in “eBooks”, while a PDF will be located in “Documents”.
Need more information? Visit: http://www.kobo.com/help/koboaura/response/?id=3784&type=3

Sony Reader

To download an EPUB file on your Sony Reader™:

  • ensure you have already installed the Reader™ Library for PC/Mac software
  • select the eBook you want from our website and click the link to download it.
  • connect the Reader™ to your computer.
  • open the Reader™ Library software and click “Library” in the left-hand pane and select the eBook to view it.

Need more help? Visit: https://au.readerstore.sony.com/apps_and_devices/

Amazon Kindle 2nd Generation devices

EPUB files can’t be read on the Amazon Kindle™. However, like most eReaders, Kindle™ 2nd Generation devices are able to display PDFs. We recommend that you download the PDF version of this booklet if you would like to read it on a Kindle™.
To transfer a PDF to your Kindle™ via USB cable from your computer or Mac:

  • download the PDF directly onto your computer.
  • connect the USB cable to your computer’s USB port, and the micro USB end of the cable to your Kindle™. Note: the Kindle™ won’t be available as a reading device while it is connected to your computer until it has been disconnected.
  • open the Kindle™ drive and several folders will appear inside. The “Documents” folder is where you will need to copy or drag the PDF to.
  • safely eject your Kindle™ from your computer and unplug the USB cable. Your content will appear on the Home Screen.

Kindle also provides a Kindle Personal Documents Service that allows users to send documents as an attachment directly to your eReader. For more information on this service, visit http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html/ref=help_search_1-1?ie=UTF8&nodeId=200767340&qid=1395967989&sr=1-1
For more information on accessing a PDF on your Kindle™, visit www.amazon.com/manageyourkindle, log in to your account and click on Personal Document Settings.
Need more help? Visit https://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=200375630