Acute leukaemia

Acute leukaemia

What is acute leukaemia?

Acute leukaemia occurs when immature white blood cells (blast cells) grow out of control and continue to divide but never mature into normal cells. It develops suddenly and progresses quickly.

The abnormal blast cells are known as leukaemia cells. Because they are immature and abnormal, the leukaemia cells do not carry out the usual function of white blood cells. They also crowd out the normal white blood cells, preventing them from working properly, which leads to an increased risk of infections.

When the bone marrow fills with leukaemia cells, there is little room for healthy red cells and platelets to be produced. This causes a variety of health problems.

Read more about acute leukaemia.


Acute leukaemia symptoms

The main signs include:

  • Anaemia – A lack of red blood cells can cause paleness, weakness, tiredness and breathlessness.
  • Repeated or persistent infections – The lack of normal white blood cells can cause mouth sores, a sore throat, fevers, sweats, coughing, boils, infected cuts or scratches, and frequent and painful passing of urine.
  • Increased bruising and bleeding – The lack of platelets can cause bruising without any kind of bump or fall, nosebleeds, bleeding gums, heavy periods in women, and small red or purple spots on the skin or mouth (petechiae).

Acute leukaemia statistics

  • Each year in Australia about 3200 people are diagnosed with a form of leukaemia.
  • Almost half of those cases are acute leukaemia.
  • Acute leukaemia accounts for about 1.1% of all cancer cases in Australia.
  • Leukaemia is the most common type of cancer diagnosed in people under 15.

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) – More common than ALL with about 900 people diagnosed annually, and it is more frequently diagnosed in men. It is more prevalent in adults than in children and becomes more common with age.

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) – Over 300 people are diagnosed each year. It is the most common type of childhood cancer and usually occurs in children 1–4 years old.


The aim of this information is to help you understand about acute leukaemia. We cannot advise you about the best treatment for you. You need to discuss this with your doctors. However, we hope this information will answer some of your questions and help you think about the questions you would like to ask your doctors or other health carers. 

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Instructions for downloading and reading EPUB files

Apple devices

The iBooks application must be installed on your Apple device before you can read the EPUB.
Different ways to download an EPUB file to your Apple device:

  • email EPUB files to yourself and transfer the attachment to iBooks.
  • copy EPUB files into DropBox (or a similar service) and use the DropBox app to send them to iBooks.
  • open EPUB files directly from Mobile Safari and open them in iBooks, where they are saved automatically by downloading the EPUB from the website.

Need more help? Visit: http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4059

Kobo

To download an EPUB file to your Kobo from a Windows computer:

  • download and save the EPUB directly onto your desktop.
  • connect your Kobo to your computer using the USB cable and tap “Connect” on your eReader.
  • select “Open folder to view files” to view the contents of your Kobo.
  • navigate to where you have stored your EPUB file in “Finder”, in documents or downloads, and drag and drop it into the Kobo window. You can now disconnect your Kobo to read the eBook.

To download an EPUB to your Kobo from a Mac:

  • download and save the EPUB directly onto your desktop.
  • connect your Kobo to your computer using the USB cable and tap “Connect” on your eReader.
  • open your “Finder” application.
  • select “Kobo eReader” from the listed devices to view the contents of your Kobo.
  • navigate to where you have stored your EPUB file in “Finder”, probably in documents or downloads, and drag and drop it into the Kobo window. You can now disconnect your Kobo to read the eBook.

Turn on your Kobo and your EPUB will be located in “eBooks”, while a PDF will be located in “Documents”.
Need more information? Visit: http://www.kobo.com/help/koboaura/response/?id=3784&type=3

Sony Reader

To download an EPUB file on your Sony Reader™:

  • ensure you have already installed the Reader™ Library for PC/Mac software
  • select the eBook you want from our website and click the link to download it.
  • connect the Reader™ to your computer.
  • open the Reader™ Library software and click “Library” in the left-hand pane and select the eBook to view it.

Need more help? Visit: https://au.readerstore.sony.com/apps_and_devices/

Amazon Kindle 2nd Generation devices

EPUB files can’t be read on the Amazon Kindle™. However, like most eReaders, Kindle™ 2nd Generation devices are able to display PDFs. We recommend that you download the PDF version of this booklet if you would like to read it on a Kindle™.
To transfer a PDF to your Kindle™ via USB cable from your computer or Mac:

  • download the PDF directly onto your computer.
  • connect the USB cable to your computer’s USB port, and the micro USB end of the cable to your Kindle™. Note: the Kindle™ won’t be available as a reading device while it is connected to your computer until it has been disconnected.
  • open the Kindle™ drive and several folders will appear inside. The “Documents” folder is where you will need to copy or drag the PDF to.
  • safely eject your Kindle™ from your computer and unplug the USB cable. Your content will appear on the Home Screen.

Kindle also provides a Kindle Personal Documents Service that allows users to send documents as an attachment directly to your eReader. For more information on this service, visit http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html/ref=help_search_1-1?ie=UTF8&nodeId=200767340&qid=1395967989&sr=1-1
For more information on accessing a PDF on your Kindle™, visit www.amazon.com/manageyourkindle, log in to your account and click on Personal Document Settings.
Need more help? Visit https://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=200375630

Android and PC

You can also download and open eBooks on Android devices and PCs with appropriate apps or software installed. Suitable eReader apps for Android include Google Play Books, FBReader and Moon+ Reader. Suitable software for PCs include Calibre and Adobe Digital Editions.