Bladder and bowel issues

Radiation therapy and surgery to the vulva can cause bladder and bowel problems. Most side effects are temporary, but for some women, the changes are permanent. Talk to your treatment team for more information.

Learn more about:


Cystitis

Radiation therapy can irritate the lining of the bladder. You may feel like you want to pass urine frequently or you might experience a burning sensation when you pass urine. This is called cystitis. Try to drink plenty of water to make your urine less concentrated. Over-the- counter urinary alkalinisers (e.g. Ural) can help by making the urine less acidic. Your doctor may also prescribe medicine to treat cystitis.


Urinary incontinence

Incontinence is when urine leaks from your bladder without your control. Bladder control may change after surgery or radiation therapy to the vagina. Some women find they need to pass urine more often or feel that they need to go in a hurry. Others may leak a few drops of urine when they cough, sneeze, strain or lift. For ways to manage incontinence, talk to the hospital continence nurse or physiotherapist. They may suggest exercises to strengthen your pelvic floor muscles. For more information, visit bladderbowel.gov.au, or contact the Continence Foundation of Australia on 1800 33 00 66.


Difficulty urinating

After surgery to the genital area, your urine stream may spray in different directions or off to one side. This can be messy and frustrating. If you usually squat or crouch over the toilet seat, it may help to sit down towards the back of the toilet seat. Camping stores, some pharmacies and online retailers also sell reusable silicone funnels (often known as female urination devices) that you can use to direct the urine. Over time, the urine stream may flow in a more manageable way.

   — Nadine


Changed bowel movements 

After surgery or radiation therapy, some women notice bowel problems. You may experience diarrhoea, constipation or stomach cramps. In rare cases, the bowel may become blocked (bowel obstruction). Your doctor may be able to prescribe medicines to help prevent or relieve these side effects. They can also refer you to a dietitian who can suggest changes to your diet.


Blood in urine or bowel movements

The blood vessels in the bowel and bladder can become more fragile after radiation therapy. This can cause blood to appear in your urine or bowel movements, even months or years after treatment. Always seek advice from your specialist or GP if you notice new or unusual bleeding. Keep in mind that it may not be related to your treatment.


Click on the icon below to download a PDF booklet on vulvar and vaginal cancers.


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Instructions for downloading and reading EPUB files

Apple devices

The iBooks application must be installed on your Apple device before you can read the EPUB.
Different ways to download an EPUB file to your Apple device:

  • email EPUB files to yourself and transfer the attachment to iBooks.
  • copy EPUB files into DropBox (or a similar service) and use the DropBox app to send them to iBooks.
  • open EPUB files directly from Mobile Safari and open them in iBooks, where they are saved automatically by downloading the EPUB from the website.

Need more help? Visit: http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4059

Kobo

To download an EPUB file to your Kobo from a Windows computer:

  • download and save the EPUB directly onto your desktop.
  • connect your Kobo to your computer using the USB cable and tap “Connect” on your eReader.
  • select “Open folder to view files” to view the contents of your Kobo.
  • navigate to where you have stored your EPUB file in “Finder”, in documents or downloads, and drag and drop it into the Kobo window. You can now disconnect your Kobo to read the eBook.

To download an EPUB to your Kobo from a Mac:

  • download and save the EPUB directly onto your desktop.
  • connect your Kobo to your computer using the USB cable and tap “Connect” on your eReader.
  • open your “Finder” application.
  • select “Kobo eReader” from the listed devices to view the contents of your Kobo.
  • navigate to where you have stored your EPUB file in “Finder”, probably in documents or downloads, and drag and drop it into the Kobo window. You can now disconnect your Kobo to read the eBook.

Turn on your Kobo and your EPUB will be located in “eBooks”, while a PDF will be located in “Documents”.
Need more information? Visit: http://www.kobo.com/help/koboaura/response/?id=3784&type=3

Sony Reader

To download an EPUB file on your Sony Reader™:

  • ensure you have already installed the Reader™ Library for PC/Mac software
  • select the eBook you want from our website and click the link to download it.
  • connect the Reader™ to your computer.
  • open the Reader™ Library software and click “Library” in the left-hand pane and select the eBook to view it.

Need more help? Visit: https://au.readerstore.sony.com/apps_and_devices/

Amazon Kindle 2nd Generation devices

EPUB files can’t be read on the Amazon Kindle™. However, like most eReaders, Kindle™ 2nd Generation devices are able to display PDFs. We recommend that you download the PDF version of this booklet if you would like to read it on a Kindle™.
To transfer a PDF to your Kindle™ via USB cable from your computer or Mac:

  • download the PDF directly onto your computer.
  • connect the USB cable to your computer’s USB port, and the micro USB end of the cable to your Kindle™. Note: the Kindle™ won’t be available as a reading device while it is connected to your computer until it has been disconnected.
  • open the Kindle™ drive and several folders will appear inside. The “Documents” folder is where you will need to copy or drag the PDF to.
  • safely eject your Kindle™ from your computer and unplug the USB cable. Your content will appear on the Home Screen.

Kindle also provides a Kindle Personal Documents Service that allows users to send documents as an attachment directly to your eReader. For more information on this service, visit http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html/ref=help_search_1-1?ie=UTF8&nodeId=200767340&qid=1395967989&sr=1-1
For more information on accessing a PDF on your Kindle™, visit www.amazon.com/manageyourkindle, log in to your account and click on Personal Document Settings.
Need more help? Visit https://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=200375630

Android and PC

You can also download and open eBooks on Android devices and PCs with appropriate apps or software installed. Suitable eReader apps for Android include Google Play Books, FBReader and Moon+ Reader. Suitable software for PCs include Calibre and Adobe Digital Editions.


This information was last reviewed in October 2018
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