Treating mild pain

Medicines used to control mild pain include paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). They are often available over the counter from pharmacies without a prescription.

These types of drugs are excellent at relieving certain types of pain, such as bone pain, muscle pain, and pain in the skin or the lining of the mouth. They can also be used with stronger pain medicines to help relieve moderate to severe pain.

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Paracetamol is a common drug that comes in many different formulations and is known by various brand names such as Panadol and Panamax. It’s recommended that an adult have no more than 4 g of paracetamol in 24 hours (usually 8 tablets), unless approved by their doctor. The dose limit for children depends on their age and weight, so check with the doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Some stronger pain medicines contain paracetamol in combination with another drug, and count towards your total intake. If taken within the recommended dose, paracetamol is unlikely to cause side effects. In some cases, your doctor will recommend you take paracetamol with other pain medicines, such as oxycodone, to help them work better.

     — Bill

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, naproxen, celecoxib, diclofenac and aspirin, vary in dose, frequency of dose and side effects. They are known by various brand names, such as Advil and Nurofen. You can have these medicines as a tablet or sometimes as an injection. Less commonly, NSAIDs are given as a suppository – a capsule inserted into the bottom (rectum).

Side effects of NSAIDs

In some people, NSAIDs can cause indigestion or stomach ulcers, increase the risk of bleeding in the stomach or intestines, and reduce kidney function. Some studies show that NSAIDs can lead to heart (cardiac) problems, especially with long-term use or in people who already have cardiac problems.

Talk to your doctor or nurse before taking NSAIDs, especially if you have had stomach ulcers, heart disease, kidney disease or gut reflux; are having chemotherapy; or are taking other medicines (such as anticoagulants/blood thinners like warfarin) that also increase your risk of bleeding. If you are taking NSAIDs in high doses or for a long time, it’s generally recommended you take them with food to lower the risk of indigestion. You may be given other medicine that is less likely to cause indigestion and bleeding, such as paracetamol.

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Instructions for downloading and reading EPUB files

Apple devices

The iBooks application must be installed on your Apple device before you can read the EPUB.
Different ways to download an EPUB file to your Apple device:

  • email EPUB files to yourself and transfer the attachment to iBooks.
  • copy EPUB files into DropBox (or a similar service) and use the DropBox app to send them to iBooks.
  • open EPUB files directly from Mobile Safari and open them in iBooks, where they are saved automatically by downloading the EPUB from the website.

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To download an EPUB file to your Kobo from a Windows computer:

  • download and save the EPUB directly onto your desktop.
  • connect your Kobo to your computer using the USB cable and tap “Connect” on your eReader.
  • select “Open folder to view files” to view the contents of your Kobo.
  • navigate to where you have stored your EPUB file in “Finder”, in documents or downloads, and drag and drop it into the Kobo window. You can now disconnect your Kobo to read the eBook.

To download an EPUB to your Kobo from a Mac:

  • download and save the EPUB directly onto your desktop.
  • connect your Kobo to your computer using the USB cable and tap “Connect” on your eReader.
  • open your “Finder” application.
  • select “Kobo eReader” from the listed devices to view the contents of your Kobo.
  • navigate to where you have stored your EPUB file in “Finder”, probably in documents or downloads, and drag and drop it into the Kobo window. You can now disconnect your Kobo to read the eBook.

Turn on your Kobo and your EPUB will be located in “eBooks”, while a PDF will be located in “Documents”.
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Sony Reader

To download an EPUB file on your Sony Reader™:

  • ensure you have already installed the Reader™ Library for PC/Mac software
  • select the eBook you want from our website and click the link to download it.
  • connect the Reader™ to your computer.
  • open the Reader™ Library software and click “Library” in the left-hand pane and select the eBook to view it.

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Amazon Kindle 2nd Generation devices

EPUB files can’t be read on the Amazon Kindle™. However, like most eReaders, Kindle™ 2nd Generation devices are able to display PDFs. We recommend that you download the PDF version of this booklet if you would like to read it on a Kindle™.
To transfer a PDF to your Kindle™ via USB cable from your computer or Mac:

  • download the PDF directly onto your computer.
  • connect the USB cable to your computer’s USB port, and the micro USB end of the cable to your Kindle™. Note: the Kindle™ won’t be available as a reading device while it is connected to your computer until it has been disconnected.
  • open the Kindle™ drive and several folders will appear inside. The “Documents” folder is where you will need to copy or drag the PDF to.
  • safely eject your Kindle™ from your computer and unplug the USB cable. Your content will appear on the Home Screen.

Kindle also provides a Kindle Personal Documents Service that allows users to send documents as an attachment directly to your eReader. For more information on this service, visit
For more information on accessing a PDF on your Kindle™, visit, log in to your account and click on Personal Document Settings.
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Android and PC

You can also download and open eBooks on Android devices and PCs with appropriate apps or software installed. Suitable eReader apps for Android include Google Play Books, FBReader and Moon+ Reader. Suitable software for PCs include Calibre and Adobe Digital Editions.

This information was last reviewed in September 2018
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