Menopause means that a woman’s ovaries no longer produce eggs and her periods stop. For most women, menopause is a natural and gradual process that starts between the ages of 45 and 55.

Some cancer treatments, including certain chemotherapy drugs, radiation therapy to the pelvic area, hormone treatment and surgery to remove the ovaries (oophorectomy), can cause symptoms of menopause. These symptoms can be temporary or permanent.

For women who want to have children, menopause can be devastating (see Fertility problems). If your family is complete or you didn’t want children, you may still have mixed emotions or worry about the impact of menopause on your relationship. Some women find menopause difficult because they feel it has taken away part of their identity as a woman.

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Symptoms of menopause

When menopause occurs suddenly as a result of cancer treatment, symptoms may be more severe because the body hasn’t had time to get used to the gradual decrease in hormone levels.

Symptoms may include hot flushes, sweating (especially at night), dry or itchy skin, loss of confidence, mood swings, anxiety, trouble sleeping, tiredness, loss of libido and vaginal dryness.

Many of these symptoms will eventually pass, although this may take months or a few years. Some women who have already been through menopause find that these symptoms return during or after treatment.

Managing menopause symptoms

  • Meditation and relaxation techniques may help reduce stress and lessen symptoms.
  • Maintain a healthy weight and eat a healthy diet with lots of fresh fruit, vegetables and wholegrains.
  • Ask your doctor for advice about diet changes or herbal remedies.
  • Cholesterol levels can change after menopause, which can increase your risk of heart disease. Talk to your doctor about lifestyle changes or cholesterol-lowering drugs.
  • Menopause can increase your risk of developing thinning of the bones.
  • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can help reduce symptoms of menopause, but may not be recommended for some women who had hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast or ovarian cancer.
  • If vaginal dryness is a problem, take more time before and during sex to give yourself time to become aroused and for the vagina to become more lubricated.
  • Look for a vaginal moisturiser at the chemist to help with vaginal discomfort and dryness.
  • See your doctor about trying an oestrogen cream, which may relieve vaginal dryness. If you need to avoid products containing oestrogen, talk to your doctor about non-hormonal medicines that may help with menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and night sweats.
  • For more tips see Sexuality and intimacy.
  • Ask whether your hospital has a menopause clinic. If you need help adjusting to menopause symptoms after cancer treatment, talk to your doctor about a referral.

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Instructions for downloading and reading EPUB files

Apple devices

The iBooks application must be installed on your Apple device before you can read the EPUB.
Different ways to download an EPUB file to your Apple device:

  • email EPUB files to yourself and transfer the attachment to iBooks.
  • copy EPUB files into DropBox (or a similar service) and use the DropBox app to send them to iBooks.
  • open EPUB files directly from Mobile Safari and open them in iBooks, where they are saved automatically by downloading the EPUB from the website.

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To download an EPUB file to your Kobo from a Windows computer:

  • download and save the EPUB directly onto your desktop.
  • connect your Kobo to your computer using the USB cable and tap “Connect” on your eReader.
  • select “Open folder to view files” to view the contents of your Kobo.
  • navigate to where you have stored your EPUB file in “Finder”, in documents or downloads, and drag and drop it into the Kobo window. You can now disconnect your Kobo to read the eBook.

To download an EPUB to your Kobo from a Mac:

  • download and save the EPUB directly onto your desktop.
  • connect your Kobo to your computer using the USB cable and tap “Connect” on your eReader.
  • open your “Finder” application.
  • select “Kobo eReader” from the listed devices to view the contents of your Kobo.
  • navigate to where you have stored your EPUB file in “Finder”, probably in documents or downloads, and drag and drop it into the Kobo window. You can now disconnect your Kobo to read the eBook.

Turn on your Kobo and your EPUB will be located in “eBooks”, while a PDF will be located in “Documents”.
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Sony Reader

To download an EPUB file on your Sony Reader™:

  • ensure you have already installed the Reader™ Library for PC/Mac software
  • select the eBook you want from our website and click the link to download it.
  • connect the Reader™ to your computer.
  • open the Reader™ Library software and click “Library” in the left-hand pane and select the eBook to view it.

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Amazon Kindle 2nd Generation devices

EPUB files can’t be read on the Amazon Kindle™. However, like most eReaders, Kindle™ 2nd Generation devices are able to display PDFs. We recommend that you download the PDF version of this booklet if you would like to read it on a Kindle™.
To transfer a PDF to your Kindle™ via USB cable from your computer or Mac:

  • download the PDF directly onto your computer.
  • connect the USB cable to your computer’s USB port, and the micro USB end of the cable to your Kindle™. Note: the Kindle™ won’t be available as a reading device while it is connected to your computer until it has been disconnected.
  • open the Kindle™ drive and several folders will appear inside. The “Documents” folder is where you will need to copy or drag the PDF to.
  • safely eject your Kindle™ from your computer and unplug the USB cable. Your content will appear on the Home Screen.

Kindle also provides a Kindle Personal Documents Service that allows users to send documents as an attachment directly to your eReader. For more information on this service, visit
For more information on accessing a PDF on your Kindle™, visit, log in to your account and click on Personal Document Settings.
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Android and PC

You can also download and open eBooks on Android devices and PCs with appropriate apps or software installed. Suitable eReader apps for Android include Google Play Books, FBReader and Moon+ Reader. Suitable software for PCs include Calibre and Adobe Digital Editions.

This information was last reviewed in April 2018
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