Thinking and memory changes

Some people diagnosed with breast cancer experience changes in the way that they think, process and remember information. This may be called cancer-related cognitive impairment, “cancer fog” or “chemo brain”. The exact cause is unknown, but studies show that it may be caused by the cancer itself, by treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy and anaesthesia, and by treatment side effects, such as fatigue, sleeping problems, pain and hormonal changes.

For most people, thinking and memory problems get better within the first year of finishing treatment. Others may experience longer-term changes.

To manage any cognitive problems, you can:

  • make changes to your daily routine, e.g. write lists, use smartphone reminders, avoid distractions, pace yourself
  • maintain a healthy lifestyle, e.g. exercise, relaxation, nutritious diet
  • improve your thinking and memory, e.g. crosswords, brain training
  • tell your family and friends, and ask your health care team for help.

You can also see a clinical psychologist or neurospsychologist for cognitive rehabilitation. This therapy helps you to restore your thinking and memory skills, and develop strategies to manage any changes.

For more on this, see Changes in Thinking and Memory.


Listen to our podcast on Brain Fog and Cancer


This information was last reviewed in August 2018
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