Fruit, vegetables and cancer prevention

Fruit and vegetables may protect against cancer of the mouth, throat, oesophagus, stomach and bowel. Fruit may also protect against lung cancer.

Fruits and vegetables are essential for a healthy balanced diet. They are a great source of fibre, vitamins and minerals. Fruit and vegetables also contain natural protective substances, such as antioxidants, that can destroy cancer-causing agents (carcinogens) and cancer cells. However fruit and vegetables are probably most useful in helping to maintain a healthy body weight. This is because fruits and vegetables are low in energy (kilojoules or calories) and high in fibre, which helps us to feel fuller and may help us eat less. Overweight and obesity is a strong risk factor for some types of cancer – bowel, oesophagus, kidney, pancreas, endometrium (lining of the womb) and post menopausal breast.

How much should I eat in a day?
At least five serves of vegetables and two serves of fruit a day are recommended for good health and to reduce cancer risk.

What is a serve of vegetables?

  • ½ cup cooked vegetables
  • 1 cup of salad
  • ½ cup legumes e.g. soy beans, lentils, chickpeas, kidney beans
  • ½ medium potato

What is a serve of fruit?

  • 1 medium sized piece of fruit e.g. apple, pear, orange, banana
  • 2 small pieces of fruit e.g. apricots, plums, kiwifruit
  • 1 cup fruit salad or canned fruit pieces
  • 1 ½ tablespoons of sultanas or other dried fruit
  • ½ cup (125mL) of unsweetened juice

Tips for increasing your daily fruit and vegetable intake

  • Shop for fresh fruit and vegetables weekly to ensure you have a fresh supply.
  • Enjoy fruit as a snack or for dessert.
  • Add fresh or canned fruit as a topping on breakfast cereal.
  • Fill half your dinner plate with vegetables.
  • Include at least three different coloured vegetables with your main meal.
  • For interest and variety, cook vegetables in different ways e.g. oven roasted, grilled or barbequed.
  • Include salad with lunch or choose dishes which include plenty of vegetables.
  • Use frozen, dried or canned vegetables and fruit if fresh is not available.
  • Adapt your recipes to include more vegetables, (e.g. add carrot, celery and peas to Bolognese sauce).

Are some fruits and vegetables better than others?
Different types of fruits and vegetables contain cancer fighting substances that protect in different ways, so you should eat a variety of different fruits and vegetables each day.

Consumption of both cooked and raw vegetables is recommended.

Organic fruit and vegetables do not appear to protect against cancer more than conventionally grown fruit and vegetables. The consumption of organic fruit and vegetables is an individual choice.

Are nutritional supplements a good alternative?
Scientists are still discovering the many beneficial protective substances found in vegetables and fruit, so a tablet cannot possibly replace the real thing. Be careful taking vitamins as some are toxic in large doses. It is best to obtain vitamins and minerals naturally by eating a balanced diet that includes at least five serves of vegetables and two serves of fruit daily.

See the  Fruit, Vegetables and Cancer Position Statement for more information.

Instructions for downloading and reading EPUB files

Apple devices

The iBooks application must be installed on your Apple device before you can read the EPUB.
Different ways to download an EPUB file to your Apple device:

  • email EPUB files to yourself and transfer the attachment to iBooks.
  • copy EPUB files into DropBox (or a similar service) and use the DropBox app to send them to iBooks.
  • open EPUB files directly from Mobile Safari and open them in iBooks, where they are saved automatically by downloading the EPUB from the website.

Need more help? Visit: http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4059

Kobo

To download an EPUB file to your Kobo from a Windows computer:

  • download and save the EPUB directly onto your desktop.
  • connect your Kobo to your computer using the USB cable and tap “Connect” on your eReader.
  • select “Open folder to view files” to view the contents of your Kobo.
  • navigate to where you have stored your EPUB file in “Finder”, in documents or downloads, and drag and drop it into the Kobo window. You can now disconnect your Kobo to read the eBook.

To download an EPUB to your Kobo from a Mac:

  • download and save the EPUB directly onto your desktop.
  • connect your Kobo to your computer using the USB cable and tap “Connect” on your eReader.
  • open your “Finder” application.
  • select “Kobo eReader” from the listed devices to view the contents of your Kobo.
  • navigate to where you have stored your EPUB file in “Finder”, probably in documents or downloads, and drag and drop it into the Kobo window. You can now disconnect your Kobo to read the eBook.

Turn on your Kobo and your EPUB will be located in “eBooks”, while a PDF will be located in “Documents”.
Need more information? Visit: http://www.kobo.com/help/koboaura/response/?id=3784&type=3

Sony Reader

To download an EPUB file on your Sony Reader™:

  • ensure you have already installed the Reader™ Library for PC/Mac software
  • select the eBook you want from our website and click the link to download it.
  • connect the Reader™ to your computer.
  • open the Reader™ Library software and click “Library” in the left-hand pane and select the eBook to view it.

Need more help? Visit: https://au.readerstore.sony.com/apps_and_devices/

Amazon Kindle 2nd Generation devices

EPUB files can’t be read on the Amazon Kindle™. However, like most eReaders, Kindle™ 2nd Generation devices are able to display PDFs. We recommend that you download the PDF version of this booklet if you would like to read it on a Kindle™.
To transfer a PDF to your Kindle™ via USB cable from your computer or Mac:

  • download the PDF directly onto your computer.
  • connect the USB cable to your computer’s USB port, and the micro USB end of the cable to your Kindle™. Note: the Kindle™ won’t be available as a reading device while it is connected to your computer until it has been disconnected.
  • open the Kindle™ drive and several folders will appear inside. The “Documents” folder is where you will need to copy or drag the PDF to.
  • safely eject your Kindle™ from your computer and unplug the USB cable. Your content will appear on the Home Screen.

Kindle also provides a Kindle Personal Documents Service that allows users to send documents as an attachment directly to your eReader. For more information on this service, visit http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html/ref=help_search_1-1?ie=UTF8&nodeId=200767340&qid=1395967989&sr=1-1
For more information on accessing a PDF on your Kindle™, visit www.amazon.com/manageyourkindle, log in to your account and click on Personal Document Settings.
Need more help? Visit https://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=200375630