After skin cancer treatment

If you have been treated for sunspots (solar keratoses) or skin cancer, you have a high chance of developing new skin cancers.

Sun damage builds up over the years and can’t be repaired. However, you can prevent further damage to your skin. Make skin protection a part of your lifestyle throughout the year, not just in summer.

It is important to be familiar with your skin, check it for changes (self-examination) and visit your doctor for regular checkups.

Preventing other skin cancers

The best way to prevent skin cancer is to protect your skin from the sun and other sources of UV radiation (such as solariums). Use a combination of the following measures to protect yourself.

  • Wear clothing that covers as much of your skin as possible, including the back of your neck. Shirts with sleeves and a collar, trousers, and long skirts or long shorts that cover a large part of your legs are ideal. The best protection comes from closely woven fabric, as UV radiation can go through thin material.
  • Use sunscreen with sun protection factor (SPF) 30+ that is broad spectrum and water resistant. Apply sunscreen 20 minutes before going out and reapply every two hours or after swimming or any activity that causes you to sweat or rub it off.
  • Wear a hat that shades your face, neck and ears. Broad brim, bucket style and legionnaire style hats provide good protection. Baseball caps aren’t recommended. Adult hats should have at least an 8-10 cm brim.
  • Use shade from trees, umbrellas, buildings or any type of canopy. Choose your shade carefully. UV radiation is reflective and bounces off surfaces such as concrete, water and sand, causing you to burn even when you think you’re shaded.
  • Protect your eyes with sunglasses that meet the Australian Standard AS 1067 (check the tag). Wrap-around styles are best.
  • Always protect your skin when the UV Index is 3 (moderate) or above. UV levels are strongest between 11am and 3pm during daylight saving (10am and 2pm at other times of the year). During these hours, more than 60% of the sun’s UV radiation reaches the earth’s surface.
  • Do not use tanning beds or sun lamps, which give off UV radiation that increases the risk of skin cancer.
  • Babies and children have delicate skin and should be protected from direct exposure to sunlight. Use shade, umbrellas, clothing and hats to protect them. Apply SPF 30+ sunscreen to the areas of skin that cannot be covered with clothing, such as the face and the back of the hands.

Sunlight and health

Sunlight is important to your health. Vitamin D, which is needed to develop and maintain strong and healthy bones, is made when skin is exposed to UV radiation.

You only need to be in the sun for about 10 minutes on most days of the week, outside peak UV times, to produce enough vitamin D for good health. Most Australians get enough UV radiation from the sun just by going about their daily activities. If you don’t go outside much and are concerned about getting enough vitamin D, talk to your GP.

This information was last reviewed in Content updated March 2011

This information has been reviewed by: Dr Andrew Satchell, Dermatologist, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and Dubbo Dermatology; Irena Brozek, Research and Development Officer – Sun, Cancer Council NSW; Neva Sperling, Consumer; Monica Tucker, Cancer Information Consultant, Cancer Council Helpline; and Margaret Whitton, Clinical Nurse Consultant, Department of Dermatology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital.

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Instructions for downloading and reading EPUB files

Apple devices

The iBooks application must be installed on your Apple device before you can read the EPUB.
Different ways to download an EPUB file to your Apple device:

  • email EPUB files to yourself and transfer the attachment to iBooks.
  • copy EPUB files into DropBox (or a similar service) and use the DropBox app to send them to iBooks.
  • open EPUB files directly from Mobile Safari and open them in iBooks, where they are saved automatically by downloading the EPUB from the website.

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To download an EPUB file to your Kobo from a Windows computer:

  • download and save the EPUB directly onto your desktop.
  • connect your Kobo to your computer using the USB cable and tap “Connect” on your eReader.
  • select “Open folder to view files” to view the contents of your Kobo.
  • navigate to where you have stored your EPUB file in “Finder”, in documents or downloads, and drag and drop it into the Kobo window. You can now disconnect your Kobo to read the eBook.

To download an EPUB to your Kobo from a Mac:

  • download and save the EPUB directly onto your desktop.
  • connect your Kobo to your computer using the USB cable and tap “Connect” on your eReader.
  • open your “Finder” application.
  • select “Kobo eReader” from the listed devices to view the contents of your Kobo.
  • navigate to where you have stored your EPUB file in “Finder”, probably in documents or downloads, and drag and drop it into the Kobo window. You can now disconnect your Kobo to read the eBook.

Turn on your Kobo and your EPUB will be located in “eBooks”, while a PDF will be located in “Documents”.
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Sony Reader

To download an EPUB file on your Sony Reader™:

  • ensure you have already installed the Reader™ Library for PC/Mac software
  • select the eBook you want from our website and click the link to download it.
  • connect the Reader™ to your computer.
  • open the Reader™ Library software and click “Library” in the left-hand pane and select the eBook to view it.

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Amazon Kindle 2nd Generation devices

EPUB files can’t be read on the Amazon Kindle™. However, like most eReaders, Kindle™ 2nd Generation devices are able to display PDFs. We recommend that you download the PDF version of this booklet if you would like to read it on a Kindle™.
To transfer a PDF to your Kindle™ via USB cable from your computer or Mac:

  • download the PDF directly onto your computer.
  • connect the USB cable to your computer’s USB port, and the micro USB end of the cable to your Kindle™. Note: the Kindle™ won’t be available as a reading device while it is connected to your computer until it has been disconnected.
  • open the Kindle™ drive and several folders will appear inside. The “Documents” folder is where you will need to copy or drag the PDF to.
  • safely eject your Kindle™ from your computer and unplug the USB cable. Your content will appear on the Home Screen.

Kindle also provides a Kindle Personal Documents Service that allows users to send documents as an attachment directly to your eReader. For more information on this service, visit
For more information on accessing a PDF on your Kindle™, visit, log in to your account and click on Personal Document Settings.
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Android and PC

You can also download and open eBooks on Android devices and PCs with appropriate apps or software installed. Suitable eReader apps for Android include Google Play Books, FBReader and Moon+ Reader. Suitable software for PCs include Calibre and Adobe Digital Editions.