What is Ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the SunSmart UV Alert?

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a form of energy that is produced by the sun. Our sun produces different kinds of energy:

  • Visible light that we can see (sunlight)
  • Infrared red radiation that we can feel (heat or temperature); and
  • UV radiation that we can’t see or feel.

    UV sources

UV radiation is often confused with infrared radiation. The temperature, however, does not affect UV radiation levels. UV radiation can be just as high on a cool or even cold day as it is on a hot one, especially if skies are clear. Thick cloud provides a good filter, but UV radiation can penetrate thin cloud cover. And while UV radiation is higher in summer than in winter, it is still present every day of the year.

There are three types of UV radiation:

UVA: transmits freely through the earth’s atmosphere.
UVB: about 15% of UVB transmits through to the earth’s atmosphere. The rest is absorbed by ozone.
UVC: is absorbed by ozone and does not reach the earth’s surface.

UVA and UVB both contribute to sunburn, skin ageing, eye damage and skin cancer.

UV radiation from the sun is the cause of almost all skin cancers. The simplest way to reduce your risk of melanoma and other skin cancers is to use sun protection when the sun’s rays are strong enough to damage your skin.

Unfortunately you can’t see or feel UV radiation so it can be difficult to know when you need to use sun protection. Not only is UV radiation present every day (even on cold days) but UV levels change according to a number of factors. These include:

  • time of year
  • time of day
  • geographical location
  • cloud cover

SunSmart app

Download the SunSmart app

The SunSmart App will show you the daily UV levels, set a sunscreen reminder and track your vitamin D intake.

SunSmart app for Android
SunSmart app for iPhone



The SunSmart UV Alert is a useful tool that identifies:

  • The hours of each day when the UV Index will be 3 or above – that is high enough to cause permanent damage to most skin types.
  • The maximum UV forecast for the day.
  • The SunSmart UV Alert uses the UV Index to demonstrate how UV levels rise and drop throughout the day.

The UV Index:

  • Divides UV radiation levels into: low (1-2), moderate (3-5), high (6-7), very high (8-10) and extreme (11 and above).
  • Is often presented in the shape of a bell curve to show how UV radiation levels change throughout the day – lower in the morning, highest in the middle part of the day and gradually dropping again throughout the afternoon.

How to read the SunSmart UV Alert
Uv Alert exampleIn the example below the SunSmart UV Alert sun protection times are from 9am to 3.20pm. This means that between these times UV levels will be 3 and above – strong enough to cause permanent damage to most skin types – and sun protection should be used.

UV levels vary across different parts of NSW. Even on the same day UV levels will be higher in some parts of NSW than in others.

You can check the SunSmart UV Alert daily on www.cancercouncil.com.au/sunsmartuvalert, in most local newspapers or by downloading the free SunSmart App (above). You can also add the UV Alert to your widget to your website.


Instructions for downloading and reading EPUB files

Apple devices

The iBooks application must be installed on your Apple device before you can read the EPUB.
Different ways to download an EPUB file to your Apple device:

  • email EPUB files to yourself and transfer the attachment to iBooks.
  • copy EPUB files into DropBox (or a similar service) and use the DropBox app to send them to iBooks.
  • open EPUB files directly from Mobile Safari and open them in iBooks, where they are saved automatically by downloading the EPUB from the website.

Need more help? Visit: http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4059


To download an EPUB file to your Kobo from a Windows computer:

  • download and save the EPUB directly onto your desktop.
  • connect your Kobo to your computer using the USB cable and tap “Connect” on your eReader.
  • select “Open folder to view files” to view the contents of your Kobo.
  • navigate to where you have stored your EPUB file in “Finder”, in documents or downloads, and drag and drop it into the Kobo window. You can now disconnect your Kobo to read the eBook.

To download an EPUB to your Kobo from a Mac:

  • download and save the EPUB directly onto your desktop.
  • connect your Kobo to your computer using the USB cable and tap “Connect” on your eReader.
  • open your “Finder” application.
  • select “Kobo eReader” from the listed devices to view the contents of your Kobo.
  • navigate to where you have stored your EPUB file in “Finder”, probably in documents or downloads, and drag and drop it into the Kobo window. You can now disconnect your Kobo to read the eBook.

Turn on your Kobo and your EPUB will be located in “eBooks”, while a PDF will be located in “Documents”.
Need more information? Visit: http://www.kobo.com/help/koboaura/response/?id=3784&type=3

Sony Reader

To download an EPUB file on your Sony Reader™:

  • ensure you have already installed the Reader™ Library for PC/Mac software
  • select the eBook you want from our website and click the link to download it.
  • connect the Reader™ to your computer.
  • open the Reader™ Library software and click “Library” in the left-hand pane and select the eBook to view it.

Need more help? Visit: https://au.readerstore.sony.com/apps_and_devices/

Amazon Kindle 2nd Generation devices

EPUB files can’t be read on the Amazon Kindle™. However, like most eReaders, Kindle™ 2nd Generation devices are able to display PDFs. We recommend that you download the PDF version of this booklet if you would like to read it on a Kindle™.
To transfer a PDF to your Kindle™ via USB cable from your computer or Mac:

  • download the PDF directly onto your computer.
  • connect the USB cable to your computer’s USB port, and the micro USB end of the cable to your Kindle™. Note: the Kindle™ won’t be available as a reading device while it is connected to your computer until it has been disconnected.
  • open the Kindle™ drive and several folders will appear inside. The “Documents” folder is where you will need to copy or drag the PDF to.
  • safely eject your Kindle™ from your computer and unplug the USB cable. Your content will appear on the Home Screen.

Kindle also provides a Kindle Personal Documents Service that allows users to send documents as an attachment directly to your eReader. For more information on this service, visit http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html/ref=help_search_1-1?ie=UTF8&nodeId=200767340&qid=1395967989&sr=1-1
For more information on accessing a PDF on your Kindle™, visit www.amazon.com/manageyourkindle, log in to your account and click on Personal Document Settings.
Need more help? Visit https://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=200375630

Android and PC

You can also download and open eBooks on Android devices and PCs with appropriate apps or software installed. Suitable eReader apps for Android include Google Play Books, FBReader and Moon+ Reader. Suitable software for PCs include Calibre and Adobe Digital Editions.